Network Carriers Explained

We use phones and computers everyday and so we might be curious that how the data is travelling so fast in fractions of Seconds. To carry that data we need carriers, like we have trains or buses to carry our goods. So there are different standardized carriers who have the different capacity i.e. at which rate the data will be transmitted, so depending upon your price range we can buy the type of carrier. The carriers can be used to transmit both voice and data

Different Type of Carrier Signals:

1)  T1 is a digital carrier signal that transmits the signal at a data rate of about 1.544  
2)  It contains twenty four digital channels.
3)  This technology makes your modem to have higher speeds and it is an affordable 
4)  Basic Unit of T-Carrier System is DS0(Digital Signal Level 0) having transmission Rate 
       as 64 k bit/s.
5)  The T-1 channel combines 24x64 Kbps(1536 kbps) channels into one single channel
6)  The rest 8 k bit/s are used for framing information (1536+8 = 1544kbps).
7)  T2 and T3 circuit channels carry multiple T1 channels multiplexed, resulting in  
       transmission rates of 6.312 and 44.736 M bit/s, respectively.
8)  The DS designations are used in connection with the North American(T) hierarchy only. 
       So DS1 is the data carried on a T1 circuit so the terms are used interchangeably.

                                         In Above Diagram T1C ("C" stands for "concatenated")

1)  E1 is similar to the T1.
2)  T1 is the North American term whereas the E1 is the European term for the transmission      3)  E1 is a physical layer protocol, like Ethernet. It defines a 2Mbps link between two 
4)  It has 32 channels at the speed of 64 Kbps.
5)  2 channels among the 32 are reserved for signaling while the other channel is used for 
6)  The difference between T1 and E1 lies in the number of channels here. The speed 
      remains the same. There may be inter – connection between the E1 and T1 lines. This is 
      interconnected because it is used for international purpose.  
7)  E1 circuits are very common in most telephone exchanges and are used to connect to  
      medium and large companies,

1) OC means Optical Carriers.
2) Its standard of transmission bandwidth for digital signals that can be carried on 
     Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) fiber optic networks.
3) The base unit or basic transmission rate is 51.84 Mbit/s.
4) Speed of optical-carrier lines labeled as OC-n is n × 51.84 M bit/s. (OC-4,OC-12 etc.)

The carriers described above are the basic carries which are used in Networking. Also the exact bandwidth is less than what you see above because some of the bandwidth is used as an overhead (Signalling data, Headers etc.)

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