What is the Function of a Router

A Router is one of the most happening and intelligent Device in Computer Networking. Basically, its a device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

The perform different functions like:
           1.  Packet Switching.
        2.  Path Selection.

 It is the routers job to determine the best method for delivering the data, and switching that data as quickly as possible.

Intercept datagrams sent to remote network segments between networks, playing a translated role. 

Router Selects the most reasonable route to guide communications. In order to achieve this function, the router will check the routing table based on certain routing communication protocol, and the routing table lists all the nodes contained in the entire internet, the path conditions between nodes
and transmission costs associated with them. 

As you can see in the below diagram, a specific node (a) has more than one path to reach its destination (g) , then, the function of router is to select the optimal path based on pre-determined specifications (Now there are many conditions and algorithms defined which help router to select the most optimal path, but we are not diving into that complexity)


Because a variety of network segments and their mutual connection situations may change, the routing information needs to be updated in time(in Router Table), which be done as :

 1. Time based Update ( Update table after Certain Time )
 2. Updating according to changes determined by the routing information 
     protocol used. Each router in the network dynamically updates its routing
     table according to this rule to maintain effective routing information.

While forwarding datagram, Router facilitate transferring datagrams between networks by dividing large data packets into appropriate sized data packets according to predetermined specifications, and those appropriate sized data packets will be turned into their original form when reaching the destination.

Multi-protocol routers can connect and use network segments of different communication protocols and so they can act as connecting platforms for network segments of different communication protocols.

Finally, main function of router is to guide the communications to the destination network, and then reach the addresses of the specific node station. 

Another function is to decompose the internet address. For example, assign parts of the network address to specific network, subnet and a group of regional nodes, while the rest can be used to specify the particular station of subnet. Hierarchical addressing allows routers to store addressing information of networks with many node stations.

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